By John Drabble
An financial historical past of Malaysia, c.1800-1990 , presents the 1st basic background of the Malaysian economic system over the last centuries, together with a survey of the pre-colonial period. a different function is that it integrates the old studies of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak as a case research within the onset of recent fiscal development. specific realization is paid to explaining Malaysia's sign luck achieve a comparatively soft shift clear of the first commodity export financial system of the colonial interval to near-NIC prestige by means of 1990.
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Additional resources for An Economic History of Malaysia, c. 1800–1990: The Transition to Modern Economic Growth
In sawah the plough (tenggala), almost certainly Indian in origin, may have reached Kedah by the eighth or ninth century AD. Perhaps the most innovative were the Minangkabau migrants in the upper Muar valley who grew 12 The Premodern Economy dry-rice on the hillsides, and wet-rice in rain-fed valley ﬁelds and ﬁelds irrigated from rivers by means of water wheels (Hill, 1977, 27; Zaharah Mahmud, 1992, 309). 1660–1, 1738 and 1771. In the western coastal districts of Sabah by the nineteenth century seeds were transplanted, and an elaborate system of dykes, sluices and canals utilised (Ranjit Singh, 1984, 392).
The impact of the trade resurgence of the later eighteenth and early nineteenth century on the regional economy was similar to that of the ﬁfteenth and sixteenth century. The ﬂow of commodities through the entrepot ports had linkage effects throughout the archipelago as well as the Southeast Asian mainland. There was an extension of cash-cropping and mining activity. In this later period, however, there were signiﬁcant differences in the roles of the various ethnic groups involved. , mining), was surveyed in the previous section.
One estimate is that by the eighteenth century roughly 5 per cent of the total population of the producing areas was directly engaged in this cash crop, with many more in the ports and shipping industries indirectly involved (Reid, 1992, 469). Exports such as tin and pepper were mainly requited by imports of manufactured goods. Some of these came from outside the region, for instance pottery from southern China and cotton textiles from eastern India, but a range of products, notably metalwares (gold, silver, tin, brass, iron), came from the local port-cities where craftsmen were concentrated.
An Economic History of Malaysia, c. 1800–1990: The Transition to Modern Economic Growth by John Drabble